International Justice Monitor

A project of the Open Society Justice Initiative

Who’s Who

The Accused

  • Charles Ghankay Taylor: Leader or Head of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) from the late 1980s onward; President of the Republic of Liberia from August 2, 1997, until August 11, 2003.

The Judges

  • Justice Teresa Doherty
  • Justice Julia Sebutinde
  • Justice Richard Lussick
  • Justice El Hadji Malick Sow, Alternate

The Prosecution

  • Brenda J. Hollis, Chief Prosecutor
  • Mohamed Bangura, Prosecutor
  • Nicholas Koumjian, Prosecutor
  • Kathryn Howarth, Prosecutor
  • Leigh Lawrie, Prosecutor
  • Christopher Santora, Prosecutor
  • Ruth Mary Hackler, Prosecutor
  • Ula Nathai-Lutchman, Prosecutor
  • Nathan Quick, Prosecutor
  • Maja Dimitrova, Case Manager

The Defense

  • Courtenay Griffiths, Lead Defense Counsel
  • Terry Munyard, Defense Counsel
  • Morris Anyah, Defense Counsel
  • Silas Chikera, Defense Counsel
  • James Supuwood, Defense Counsel

Key Organizations Referred to during Taylor’s Trial

  • AFL: Armed Forces of Liberia
  • AFRC: Armed Forces Revolutionary Council. Founded by members of the Armed Forces of Sierra Leone who seized power from the elected government of Sierra Leone via a coup d’état on May 25, 1997. Soldiers of the Sierra Leone Army comprised the majority of the AFRC membership. Shortly after the AFRC seized power, the RUF joined with the AFRC.
  • APC: All People’s Congress, political party in Sierra Leone
  • ATU: Anti-Terrorist Unit. President Taylor’s personal security force, headed by Taylor’s son Chuckie Taylor.
  • Black Gadaffa: A renegade group within the NPFL with as leader General Gbong.
  • Black Guards: Foday Sankoh’s private security force.
  • CDF: Civil Defense Forces. An organised armed force comprising various tribally-based traditional hunters. The Kamajors were comprised mainly of persons from the Mende tribe resident in the south and east of Sierra Leone, and were the predominant group within the CDF. Other groups playing a less dominant role were the Gbentis and the Kapras, both comprising mainly of Temnes from the north; the Tamaboros comprising mainly of Korankos also from the north; and the Donsos, comprising mainly of Konos from the east. The CDF fought against the RUF and AFRC.
  • CPS: Close Protective Service. CPS was directly responsible for the safety and welfare of the presidential family of Charles Taylor.
  • DDRR: Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Rehabilitation Program
  • ECOMOG: Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group. A West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). ECOMOG is not a standing army, but a formal arrangement for separate armies to work together, along similar lines to NATO. It is composed mainly of Nigerian armed forces and financial resources, with assistance from other ECOWAS members—Ghana, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger.
  • ECOWAS: Economic Community of West-African States
  • ELBC: Liberia Broadcasting System, formerly known by the name Eternal Love Broadcasting Corporation.
  • EMG: Executive Mansion Ground. A presidential residency of Charles Taylor in Gbarnga, Central Liberia.
  • ENG: Executive National Guard, a military branch on its own, directly reporting to Taylor, consisting of Liberian instructors; Chief of Staff: Cassius Jacob.
  • Executive Outcomes: An organization of South African mercenaries.
  • ICC: International Criminal Court. Based in The Hague, The Netherlands.
  • ICTR: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
  • ICTY : International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
  • IDU: Internal Defense Unit in the RUF
  • IGNU:  Interim Government of National Unity, led by Amos Sawyer in Liberia, ceased to exist in 1994
  • INPFL: Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia, founded by Prince Johnson in 1990 following an internal struggle within the NPFL.
  • JSBIP: Joint Security Board Investigation Panel, a semi-court for the RUF.
  • Junta: Another names for the AFRC/RUF regime that ceased power in Sierra Leone in 1997.
  • Kamajors: Predominant group within the CDF, mainly from the Mende tribe.
  • LBC: Liberian Peace Council
  • LDF: Lofa Defense Force, consisting of RUF and NPFL soldiers under Gambian Commander Jallow (Jalloh).
  • LISCR: Liberian International Ship and Corporate Registry
  • LNTG: Liberian National Transitional Government, a unity government of warlords, including Charles Taylor.
  • LUDF: Liberia United Defense Force founded by Albert Karpeh, later becoming ULIMO.
  • LURD: Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy. A Liberian rebel group active from around 1999-2003. Its main purpose was to remove Taylor from power.
  • MMC: Makpele Mining Company, at one time Foday Sankoh’s Headquarters.
  • MODEL: Movement for Democracy in Liberia
  • NPDC: National Provisional Defense Council, the ruling authority in Sierra Leone from April 30, 1992, until July 1992.
  • NPFL: National Patriotic Front of Liberia, a Liberian rebel group loyal to Taylor
  • NPRAG: National Patriotic Reconstruction Assembly Government, a self-declared, alternative administration established in early 1991 in areas held by the NPFL during the civil war. It was formed in opposition to the internationally recognized IGNU (Interim Government of National Unity) led by Amos Sawyer. The NPRAG was based in Gbarnga, Bong County. Charles Taylor declared himself head of the NPRAG, but this led to a dispute that eventually split the rebel group. Both the NPRAG and IGNU ceased to exist in 1994.
  • NPRC: National Provisional Ruling Council, same as NPDC.
  • NSA: National Security Agency, in Liberia
  • OTC:  Oriental Timber Corporation. Once Liberia’s largest logging company. President was Gus Kouwenhoven.
  • OTP:  Office of The Prosecutor
  • RUF:  Revolutionary United Front. Founded in Libya in 1988/1989, led by Foday Sankoh (co-founders Abu Kanu and Rashid Mansaray) and began organised armed operations in Sierra Leone in or about March 1991. It later developed into a political party, the Revolutionary United Front Party.
  • SBUs: Small Boy Units, boys kidnapped from their homes, forced to become camp followers, used as slaves for work, later forced to become child soldiers in the RUF.
  • Scorpion Unit: A unit within the RUF, with Keita as Commander, granted by Bockarie.
  • SCS: Supreme Council of State, the ruling authority in Sierra Leone from July 1992 until March 29, 1996.
  • SCSL: Special Court for Sierra Leone
  • SFM: Strike Force Marine
  • SGUs: Small Girl Units, see SBU’s
  • SLA: Sierra Leone Army
  • SLPP: Sierra Leone People’s Party, one of the major political parties in Sierra Leone.
  • SOD: Special Operations Division of the Liberian National Police
  • SOFA: Special Operational Force for Africa
  • SSS: Special Security Service in Liberia under Taylor. Director was Benjamin Yeaten.
  • SSU: Special Security Unit in Liberia under Taylor
  • STF: Special Task Force. A group of Liberian fighters with roots in the SLA and in ULIMO.
  • TDY: Temporary Duties in the Year. A temporary assignment outside one’s base camp.
  • TRC: Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  • ULIMO: United Liberation Movement for Democracy. A rebel group, which fought Taylor during Liberia’s civil war in the early 1990s, led by Alhaji Kromah. Later split into ULIMO-J and ULIMO-K.
  • ULIMO-J: United Liberation Movement for Democracy-Johnson. Founded in 1994/1995 following internal power disputes in ULIMO. Led by Roosevelt Johnson.
  • ULIMO-K: United Liberation Movement for Democracy-Kromah. Founded in 1994/1995 following internal power disputes in ULIMO. Led by Alhaji Kromah.
  • Vanguards: RUF members trained in late 1980s to early 1990s in NPFL territory in Liberia. These formed part of the first group of RUF fighters who invaded Sierra Leone in March 1991.
  • WACS: Women Army Commando Soldiers in the RUF
  • West Side Boys: An armed group, splinter faction of the AFRC, headed by Bazzy Kamara and with Hassan Bangura as second-in-command. It captured and held members of a mostly West African peacekeeping force in 2000.
  • White Flower: Taylor’s residence in Monrovia, Liberia.
  • WVS: Witness and Victims Section of the SCSL

Key Individuals referred to during Taylor’s Trial

  • Sani Abacha: Military ruler of Nigeria 1993-1998.
  • Ibrahim Babangida: Military ruler of Nigeria 1985-1993.
  • Abdulai Bah: Gambian Chief of Staff.
  • Ibrahim Bah: General in the RUF, former fighter with NPFL.
  • Patrick Bangura:  RUF Commander in charge of diamond mining in Yandohun and in Giema.
  • Hassan Papa Bangura (a.k.a. Bomb Blast): Member of the Junta AFRC Supreme Council.
  • K.S. Banya: AFRC captain.
  • Augustine Bao (a.k.a. Augustine Gbao): Senior officer and commander in the RUF, Junta and AFRC/RUF forces. Convicted and sentenced to 25 years of imprisonment in the RUF trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone.
  • Matthew Barbue: Liberian front-line Commander in the RUF.
  • Julius Maada Bio: Chairman of the Supreme Council of State in Sierra Leone from January 17, 1996, to March 29, 1996.
  • Steve Bio: Businessman and friend of the RUF.
  • Moses Zeh Blah: Vice-president of Liberia during Taylor’s Presidency, President of Liberia from August 11, 2003, until October 14, 2003, 28th Prosecution witness.
  • Samuel Bockarie (a.k.a. Mosquito, Borbor Samai): Senior commander of RUF; later Commander in Chief of the RUF in 1998 and most of 1999; indictment by the Special Court for Sierra Leone withdrawn on December 8, 2003; died May 6, 2003, allegedly killed by Benjamin Yeaten on instructions of Charles Taylor.
  • Alex Tamba Brima (a.k.a. Gullit): Senior member of the AFRC, Junta and AFRC/RUF forces, member of the Junta Governing Body, the Supreme Council. Convicted and sentenced to 50 years imprisonment in the RUF trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone.
  • Alfred Brown: Senior radio operator in the RUF.
  • Gyude Bryant: Chairman of the National Transitional Government of Liberia from October 14, 2003, to January 16, 2006.
  • José Maria Caballero, (a.k.a. Father Cheema): Spanish Catholic Priest working in Sierra Leone. 6th Prosecution witness.
  • Suwandi Camara: Gambian member of the SSS; 11th Prosecution witness.
  • Monie Captan: Minister of Foreign Affairs under Charles Taylor.
  • Musa Cissé (a.k.a. Mamadee Kamara)P: Chief of Presidential Protocol of Liberia, allegedly handled funds from diamond and timber sales on Taylor’s behalf.
  • Eldred Collins: RUF Commander and spokesman.
  • Blaise Compaoré: President of Burkina Faso since 1987.
  • Lansana Conteh: Former President of Guinea.
  • Divun – General in the NPFL.
  • Samual K. Doe: Head of the People’s Redemption Council from April 12, 1980, to January 6, 1986; President of the Republic of Liberia from January 6, 1986, to September 9, 1990; assassinated in a coup d’état.
  • Sam Dokie: Close associate of Charles Taylor, murdered in December 1997, allegedly by Benjamin Yeaten on orders of Charles Taylor.
  • Varfley A. Dolleh: Member of the National Transitional Government of Liberia of Gyude Bryant
  • Adolphus Dolo (a.k.a. General Peanut Butter): Security Director for OTC, Security Director of Hotel Africa (a government owned hotel during Taylor’s administration), leader of the SFM, and today a junior senator for Nimba County in the Liberian House of Representatives.
  • Domingo: RUF General.
  • Dry Pepper (a.k.a. Menquenagbeh): RUF Commander.
  • George Duana (a.k.a. Jack the Rebel): One of the junior forces for the NPFL.
  • Corinne Dufka: Senior Researcher for the Africa Division of Human Rights Watch, 7th Prosecution witness.
  • Eagle (a.k.a. Karmoh Kanneh): RUF Commander, 27th Prosecution witness.
  • Elephant (a.k.a. Rashid): RUF Commander.
  • Stephen Ellis: Senior Researcher at the African Studies Centre, University of Leiden in The Netherlands, 5th Prosecution witness.
  • Gnassingbé Eyadema: President of Togo from 1967 until his death on February 5, 2005.
  • Moinina Fofana: National Director of War of the CDF and second in command. Tried before the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Convicted and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment.
  • Alison des Forge: Consultant of Human Rights Watch.
  • G5: a soldier/commander in charge of civilians in the RUF.
  • Muammar al  Gaddafi: Head of State of Libya. Had a revolutionary vision that led him to support a number of anti-American, anti-Western movements. Instituted military training camps in Libya where NPFL and RUF rebels received their original trainings before attacking Liberia and Sierra Leone respectively.
  • Nixon Gaye: First Chief of Staff SFM.
  • Augustine Gbao (a.k.a. Augustine Bao): Senior officer and commander in the RUF, Junta and AFRC/RUF forces. Tried before the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Convicted and sentenced to 25 years of imprisonment.
  • Gbong: General of the Black Gadaffa, a renegade group within the NPFL.
  • General 245: Female General in NPFL.
  • Momoh Gibba: Senior aide-de-camp to Taylor, Liberian General.
  • Junior Goe: Delta Force Commander, died in December 1994, allegedly by the order of Charles Taylor.
  • Reginald Goodridge: Minister of Information under Taylor.
  • Ice T (a.k.a. Alimamy Bobson Sesay): Former member SLA and former combat commander in the AFRC, now an evangelical pastor, 23rd Prosecution witness.
  • Jack the Rebel (a.k.a. George Duana): One of the junior commanders in the NPFL.
  • Jackson: Gambian aide-de-camp.
  • Cassius Jacob: Liberian General, Chief of Staff EMG, died in December 1994, allegedly by the order of Charles Taylor.
  • Alhaji Saikou Jaiteh: Gambian who was in Libya with Taylor and Foday Sankoh.
  • Jumu Jalloh: RUF Commander.
  • Mustapha  Jallow (Jalloh): Gambian Commander in RUF, LDF Commander, EMG Security Commander.
  • Sahr James (a.k.a. Zedman): A chief radio operator and station sergeant.
  • Jabati Jaward: Member of RUF SBU and later recruited into Taylor’s ATU, 35th Prosecution witness.
  • Pa Jean: RUF Commander, died in 1993, Morris Kallon took over his command.
  • Johnny Paul Koroma (a.k.a. JPK): Leader of the AFRC from May 26, 1997, to February 12, 1998. At present his whereabouts and fate are unknown. The indictment against him by the Special Court for Sierra Leone remains in force.
  • Prince Johnson: Founder of the INPFL in 1990, in charge of the murder of Samuel Doe; since 2005 a senior senator in the Liberian Congress representing Nimba County.
  • Roosevelt Johnson: ULIMO member; Head of ULIMO-J following the split of ULIMO into ULIMO-J and ULIMO-K in 1994/1995.
  • Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf: President of Liberia from January 16, 2006, until present; first female President in Africa.
  •  S.B. Jumu: Adviser to Head of State Strasser and member of the Supreme Council of State in Sierra Leone.
  • Jungle: Member of the SSS and bodyguard to Benjamin Yeaten.
  • Jungle (a.k.a. Daniel Tamba): Junior RUF Commander.
  • Stanley Jusu: RUF Commander.
  • Ahmad Tejan Kabbah: President of Sierra Leone from March 29, 1996, to May 25, 1997, and from March 10, 1998 to September 17, 2007.
  • Ali Kabbeh: Allegedly originally set up the RUF in Libya.
  • Kaisoko: Military Commander in the RUF.
  • Morris Kallon (a.k.a. Bilai Karim): Senior officer and commander in the RUF and AFRC/RUF forces. Tried in the RUF trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Convicted and sentenced to 40 years of imprisonment.
  • Brima Bazzy Kamara (a.k.a. Ibrahim Bazzy Kamara, Alhaji Ibrahim Kamara): Senior member of the AFRC and AFRC/RUF forces, member of the AFRC Governing Body, the Supreme Council. Tried in the AFRC trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Convicted and sentenced to 45 years imprisonment.
  • Idrissa Kamara (a.k.a. Leather Boot): Military supervisor in the AFRC/RUF in 1998, now a protection officer for the President of Sierra Leone, Ernest Bai Koroma.
  • Mamadee Kamara (a.k.a. Cissé, Musa): Chief of Presidential Protocol of Liberia, allegedly handled funds from diamond and timber sales on Taylor’s behalf.
  • Perry Mohamed Kamara: Former RUF Radio Communications Officer, 10th Prosecution witness.
  • Eddie Kanneh: Ex-field Commander; Diamond Manager for the RUF.
  • Karmoh Kanneh (a.k.a. Eagle): RUF Commander, 27th Prosecution witness.
  • Abu Kanu: Co-founder of the RUF, later executed at the demand of Foday Sankoh.
  • Santigie Kanu Kanu (a.k.a. 55):  Senior member of the AFRC, Junta and AFRC/RUF forces, member of the Junta Governing Body, the Supreme Council. Tried in the AFRC trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Convicted and sentenced to 50 years imprisonment.
  • Samuel Kargbo: SLA soldier, 29th Prosecution witness.
  • Bilai Karim (a.k.a. Morris Kallon): Senior officer and commander in the RUF, Junta and AFRC/RUF forces. Tried in the RUF trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Convicted and sentenced to 40 years imprisonment.
  • Albert Karpeh: Founder of the LUDF.
  • Abu Keita: Deputy Chief of Staff in ULIMO-K and ranked General until disarmed in 1996. Was also in the AFL, the LUDF, and ULIMO.
  • David D. Kmormakpor: Chairman of the Council of State in Liberia from March 7, 1994, to September 1, 1995.
  • Dennis Koker: Former soldier for the NPRC in Sierra Leone, provided security for E.B. Jumu, 4th Prosecution witness.
  •  Allieu Kondewa (a.k.a. Allieu Musa): High Priest of the CDF. Tried before the CDF Trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Convicted and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.
  • Sekou Konneh: Leader of LURD.
  • Ernest Bai Koroma: President of Sierra Leone from September 17, 2007, until present.
  • Musa Koroma: Fourteenth Prosecution witness.
  • Pa Kosia: General Security Officer in the RUF.
  • Gus Kouwenhoven: Owner of Hotel Africa; President of the Oriental Timber Company. Has been accused by the Dutch public prosecution service of: a) illegal arms trade to the regime of Charles Taylor in Liberia from 2001-2003, and b) participation in war crimes committed by Liberian troops and/or militias from 2000-2002 during armed conflicts in Guinea and Liberia. The District Court of The Hague had sentenced Kouwenhoven on June 7, 2006, to a term of imprisonment of 8 years for illegal arms trade, but acquitted him of involvement in war crimes. Subsequently both Kouwenhoven and the Prosecution appealed. On March 10, 2008, the Court of Appeal of The Hague acquitted Kouwenhoven of all charges.
  • Krio Mammy: Female RUF member.
  • Alhaji Kromah: Head of ULIMO-K following the split of ULIMO into ULIMO-J and ULIMO-K in 1994/1995.
  • Monia Lahai: RUF Commander in charge of diamond mining in Monfidor/Sahbahun.
  • Mike Lamin: Commander in the RUF, member of the Junta AFRC Supreme Council.
  • Foday Lansana: Liberian former NPFL/RUF radio operator, 17th Prosecution witness.
  • Leather Boot (a.k.a. Idrissa Kamara): Military supervisor in the AFRC-RUF in 1998, now a protection officer for the President of Sierra Leone, Ernest Bai Koroma.
  • Liberian Mosquito (a.k.a. Christopher Varmoh): In charge of Lofa County in 1998.
  • Dr. Manneh (aka Kukoi Samba Sanyang): a Gambian who tried but failed a coup d’etat in The Gambia, trained in Libya, head of SOFA.
  • Mustapha MarvinMansaray: Former RUF Commander, 19th Prosecution witness.
  • Rashid Mansaray: Co-founder of the RUF, later executed at the demand of Foday Sankoh.
  • Joseph Marzah (a.k.a. Zigzag): Chief of Operations in the NPFL, 21st Prosecution witness,
  • Massaka: Senior RUF Commander.
  • Gibril Mussaquoi: RUF Commander.
  • Menquenagbeh (a.k.a. Dry Pepper): RUF Commander.
  • Dennis Mingo (a.k.a. Superman): Senior Commander in the RUF, allegedly killed by Benjamin Yeaten on the orders of Charles Taylor.
  • Leonid Minin: Notorious Ukrainian arms dealer.
  • Isaac Tamba Mongor: RUF Commander, member of the Junta AFRC Supreme Council, 20th Prosecution witness.
  • Joseph Montgomery: Deputy Director of Operations SSS.
  • Amos Morris: Driver of 3rd Prosecution witness Varmuyan Sherif.
  • Mosquito (a.k.a. Sam Bockarie, Borbor Samai): Senior commander of RUF; later Commander in Chief of the RUF in 1998 and most of 1999; indictment by the Special Court for Sierra Leone withdrawn on December 8, 2003; died May 6, 2003.
  • Mosquito Spray: A LURD Commander who allegedly said he was in Liberia to spray the AFL and national police and remove Charles Taylor from power.
  • Allieu Musa (a.k.a. Allieu Kondewa): High Priest of the CDF. Tried before the CDF Trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Convicted and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.
  • Isaac Musa: NPFL General, military adviser to Taylor.
  • SAJ Musa (a.k.a. Solomon Anthony James): Former Vice Chairman of the NPRC and later AFRC Commander, died during the rebel advance to Freetown in 1998.
  • Kwame Nkruma: First President of Ghana, from March 6, 1957-July 1, 1960. Advanced the concept of Pan-Africanism, the notion that Africa should be unified, as a political program.
  • Samuel Hinga Norman: National Coordinator of the CDF and Commander of the Kamajors, first in command. Tried before the CDF Trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Died February 22, 2007.
  • Binaifer Nowrojee: Counsel to the Africa Division of Human Rights Watch.
  • Nya (a.k.a. Foday Lansana): Liberian radio operations instructor in the RUF.
  • Jackson Johnday Nyassi:  A Gambian rebel commander in the NPFL.
  • One Man One: Chief of Staff for the NPFL.
  • Peanut Butter (a.k.a. Adolphus Dolo): Security Director for OTC, Security Director of Hotel Africa (a government owned hotel during Taylor’s administration), leader of the SFM, and today a junior senator for Nimba County in the House of Representatives.
  • Monica Pearson: Liberian Training Commander in the RUF.
  • Peleto (a.k.a. Amara Salia Peleto): Member of RUF, allegedly issued orders during operations in attacks on Guinea from 2000-2001.
  • Peper:  General in the NPFL.
  • Ruth Perry: Chairwoman of the Council of State in Liberia from September 3, 1996-August 27, 1997.
  • Alice Pyne: Radio operator, former girlfriend of 17th Prosecution witness Foday Lansana; 32nd Prosecution witness.
  • Thomas Quiwonkpa: Cousin of Moses Blah, was in the army with Samuel Doe. Fled from Liberia in 1983 with several others, including Charles Taylor and Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf. Planned a coup against Doe in November 1985, which failed and he was killed.
  • Rambo: Liberian front-line Commander in the RUF, allegedly killed by “Zigzag” (Joseph Marzah), allegedly instructed by Benjamin Yeaten.
  • Rashid (a.k.a. Elephant): RUF Commander.
  • Rashim: One of Foday Sankoh’s bodyguards; Commander at the RUF ‘guesthouse.’
  • Rocky (a.k.a. Emmanuel Williams): RUF Commander.
  • S.B. Rogers: War Council Chairman of the RUF.
  • Albert Hindowa Saidu (a.k.a. Arbor): From the Mende tribe, before the war a college student to become a teacher. Captured by rebels and forced to become a junior commando, 29th Prosecution witness.
  •  Mohamed Ahmad Salame: Owner of the Mohamed Group of Companies; Taylor’s informal diplomatic representative.
  • Salami: Senior bodyguard commander to Benjamin Yeaten, RUF member.
  • Samuel Bockarie (a.k.a. Sam Bockarie, Mosquito): Senior commander of RUF; later Commander in Chief of the RUF in 1998 and most of 1999; indictment by the Special Court for Sierra Leone withdrawn on 8 December 2003; died 6 May 2003.
  • Kukoi Samboyan: A Gambian, vice-president to Taylor during the NPRAG regime.
  • Wilton G.S. Sankawulo: Chairman of the Council of State in Liberia from September 1, 1995-September 3, 1996.
  • Foday Saybana Sankoh: Leader and founder of the RUF. Indictment by the Special Court for Sierra Leone withdrawn on December 8, 2003. Died July 29, 2003, from complications of a stroke.
  • Kukoi Samba Sanyang (a.k.a. Dr. Manneh): A Gambian who tried but failed a coup d’etat in Gambia, trained in Libya, head of SOFA.
  • Amos Sawyer: President of the Interim Government of National Unity in Liberia from November 22, 1990-March 7, 1994.
  • Michael Seboe: Task Force Commander, died in December 1994, allegedly by the order of Charles Taylor.
  •  Alimamy Bobson Sesay (a.k.a Ice T): Former member SLA and former combat commander in the AFRC, now an evangelist pastor, 23rd Prosecution witness.
  • Mohamed Sesay: Thirteenth  Prosecution witness.
  • Varmuyan Sherif: Battalion Commander and later General Supervisor in ULIMO in the early 1990’s. Assistant Director for Operations for the SSS from 1995-1999/2000. Various posts in the Immigration Department (Deputy Chief of Security, Chief of Security, Assistant Commissioner of Operations, Deputy Commissioner of Operations) in the Liberian government from 2000-2003. Deputy Chief of Staff for the Army Division from 2001-2002. 3rd Prosecution witness.
  • Yanks Smart: A Gambian, ambassador to Libya under Taylor during the NPRAG regime.
  • Ian Smillie: Research Coordinator with Partnership Africa Canada’s “Diamonds and Human Security Project” and a diamond expert, 1st Prosecution witness.
  • Valentine Strasser: Chairman of the National Provisional Defense Council in Sierra Leone from May-July 1992; Chairman of the Supreme Council of State in Sierra Leone from July 1992-January 1996
  • Superman (a.k.a. Dennis Mingo): Senior Commander in the RUF, allegedly killed by Benjamin Yeaten.
  • Supoon: SBU Commander, nephew of Charles Taylor.
  • Sylvester: Liberian Captain in the RUF.
  • Daniel Tamba (a.k.a. Jungle): Junior RUF Commander.
  • Mohamed  Tarawalli (a.k.a. Zino): RUF Commander.
  • Chuckie Taylor (a.k.a. Charles McArthur Emmanuel Taylor, Roy Belfast): Charles Taylor’s son and head of the ATU; mother is the American Bernice Yolanda Emmanuel; convicted in the United States for torture.
  • Prince Taylor: Commander of all the junior and senior G5’s in the RUF.
  • William R. Tolbert, Jr.: President of the Republic of Liberia from July 23, 1971-April 12, 1980; assassinated in a coup d’état.
  • Joe Tuah: Artillery Commander in the NPFL, deputy of Benjamin Yeaten in the SSS.
  • Peter Borbor Vandi: Built an airfield for the RUF in Buedu.
  • Christopher Varmoh (a.k.a. Liberian Mosquito): In charge of Lofa County in 1998.
  • Yakba Walo: Political leader and spokesman of the LDF.
  • Emmanuel Williams (a.k.a. Rocky): RUF Commander.
  • Lawrence Wohmandia: Commander in the RUF.
  • Benjamin Yeaten: Head of the Special Security Service in Liberia; Director of SSS until 2003.
  • Zedman (a.k.a. Sahr James): A chief radio operator and station sergeant
  • Zigzag (a.k.a. Joseph Marzah): Chief of Operations in the NPFL, 21st Prosecution witness.
  • Zino (a.k.a. Mohamed Tarawally): RUF Commander.

Prosecution Witnesses

  1. Ian Smillie: Expert Witness, a Research Coordinator with Partnership Africa Canada’s “Diamonds and Human Security Project” and a diamond expert
  2. Alex Tamba Teh (TF1-015): Crime base Witness, a Sierra Leonean Pastor, born in Tombodu, in Kono District
  3. Vamunyan Sherif (TF1-406): Linkage Witness, a former member of Taylor’s personal security force (Special Security Service or SSS), born in Voinjama in Liberia
  4. Dennis Koker (TF1-114): Crime base Witness, a former soldier for the NPRC in Sierra Leone, he provided security for the advisor to the President, E.B. Jumu, who was a member of the Supreme Council of State; from the Mende tribe
  5. Dr. Stephen Ellis: Expert Witness, a Senior Researcher at the African Studies Centre, University of Leiden in The Netherlands
  6. José Maria Caballero (a.k.a. Father Cheema) (TF1-326): Factual Witness, a Spanish Catholic Priest, working in Sierra Leone, started a program of reintegrating and educating child soldiers
  7. Corinne Dufka: Expert Witness, a Senior Researcher for the Africa Division of Human Rights Watch
  8. Abu Keita (TF1-276): Linkage Witness, a Mandingo, born in Zorzor, Lofa County, Liberia; he has been in the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL), the LUDF, ULIMO and ULIMO-K, was deputy Chief of Staff in ULIMO-K and ranked General until disarmed in 1996
  9. TF1-371: Linkage Witness, closed session testimony
  10. Perry Mohamed Kamara (TF1-360): Insider Witness, former RUF radio communications operator
  11. Suwandi Camara (TF1-548): Insider Witness, a Gambian, trained in Libya, later member of the SSS
  12. TF1-026: Crime base female Witness, 24-year old woman, member of the Limba tribe, from Freetown, Sierra Leone; testified with protective measures
  13. Mohamed Sesay (TF1-101): Crime base Witness, Sierra Leonean whose both hands have been amputated
  14. Musa Koroma (TF1-192): Crime base Witness, Sierra Leonean whose right arm has been badly mutilated
  15. TF1-150: Factual Witness, Closed Court Session
  16. Aruna Gbondo (TF1-330): Crime base Witness from Talia, Kailahun District, Sierra Leone, rice farmer forced to work for the rebels
  17. Foday Lansana (TF1-275): Insider Witness, a Liberian former NPFL/RUF radio communications operator
  18. TF1-362: Insider Witness, closed session testimony
  19. Mustapha Marvin Mansaray (TF1-337): Insider Witness from Fonima, Pujehun District, Sierra Leone from the Mende tribe, former RUF Commander
  20. Isaac Tamba Mongor (TF1-532): Insider Witness (TF1-532), from Kangama, Kailahun District, Sierra Leone, member AFRC and RUF
  21. Joseph D. Marzah (a.k.a. Zigzag Marzah) (TF1-399): Insider Witness (TF1-399), from Nimba County, Liberia, Chief of Operations in the NPFL
  22. TF1-516: Insider Witness, former RUF radio communications operator; protective measures: pseudonym, screen, image distortion
  23. Alimamy Bobson Sesay (a.k.a. Ice T) (TF1-334): Insider Witness, former member SLA and former combat commander in the AFRC, now an evangelicalt pastor
  24. TF1-143: Child Witness, former child soldier, now 22 years old, testified with protective measures
  25. witness = TF1-215, did not take the stand, Prosecution wanted protective measures, Defense argued that the witness had appeared in a video released to the public, Court stripped witness of protective measures and Prosecution withdrew the witness
  26. TF1-028: Crime base female Witness, woman from Sierra Leone, 42 years old of the Madinka tribe, abducted and captivated by the rebels; testified using protective measures
  27. Karmoh Kanneh (TF1-571): Insider Witness, a.k.a. Eagle, former RUF Commander
  28. Moses Zeh Blah (TF1- 561): Insider Witness, from the Gio tribe, Vice-President of Liberia during Taylor’s Presidency, President of Liberia from August 11, 2003 untill October 14, 2003
  29. Samuel Kargbo (TF1-597): Insider Witness, from the Limba tribe, Sierra Leone, former AFRC Council member and Sierra Leone Army soldier
  30. Albert Hindowa Saidu (TF10577): Insider Witness, from the Mende tribe, before the war a college student to become a teacher; captured by rebels and forced to become a junior commando
  31. TF1-539: Insider Witness, testified using protective measures
  32. TF1-590: Insider Witness, testified using protective measures
  33. Alice Pyne (TF1-584): Insider Witness, former NPFL/RUF radio communications operator, at one time girlfriend of 17th Prosecution Witness Foday Lansana
  34. TF1-375: Insider Witness, captured as a boy of 11 by the RUF in 1991,testified using protective measures
  35. TF1-567: Insider Witness, captured as a civilian from his home town, trained by NPFL rebels to fight for the RUF; later became a member of the Black Guards, serving as a bodyguard to RUF leader Foday Sankoh
  36. Jabati Jaward (TF1-388): Insider Witness, Sierra Leonean, captured by the RUF in 1991 and put in a Small Boys Unit at the age of 18
  37. TF1-367: Insider Witness, former mining commander in the RUF with close links to those in high command; was co-trained with Sam Bockarie, Mike Lamin and Issa Sesay
  38. TF1-367: Insider Witness, former mining commander in the RUF with close links to those in high command; was co-trained with Sam Bockarie, Mike Lamin and Issa Sesay
  39. TF1-338: Insider Witness, former RUF member, testified using protective measures
  40. TF1-585: Insider Witness, former RUF radio operator, testified using protective measures
  41. Mohamed Berete Kabbah (TF1-568): Insider Witness, overall signal commander for the RUF
  42. TF1-189: Crime base witness, testified with protective measures
  43. Alex Sheku Bao (TF1-122): Sierra Leone Police Officer, testified about complaints of RUF murders during the AFRC reign in 1997
  44. Stephen Smith (TF1-588): Factual Witness, American Professor who has worked as journalist in West Africa and has written extensively about issues in the sub-region
  45. Edesanya Sandy Hyde: Sierra Leone police officer, testified about atrocities committed by the RUF and AFRC
  46. Samuel Bull (TF1-065): Civilian witness, testified about AFRC/RUF activities in Kono District
  47. TF1-459: Civilian witness, testified AFRC/RUF activities in Kono District
  48. Tamba Mondeh (TF1-173): Crime Base Witness, testified about AFRC/RUF activities in Kono District
  49. Abdul Otonjo Conteh (TF1-060): Insider Witness, testified about RUF attacks and mining activities in Kenema District and thehandling of diamonds by Sam Bockarie
  50. TF1-064: Crime Base Witness, testified using protective measures
  51. Osman Jalloh (TF1-233): Crime Base Witness, whose two hands were amputated by rebels
  52. Patrick Sheriff (TF1-279): Crime Base Witness, testified about rebel atrocities in the Western Area of Sierra Leone
  53. Komba Sumana (TF1-263): Insider witness and former child soldier
  54. TF1-305: Crime Base Witness, testified using protective measures
  55. James Kpunghu (TF1-087): Crime Base Witness, testified about rebel atrocities in the Western Area
  56. Samuel Komba (TF1-072): Crime Base Witness, testified about atrocities committed in Kono
  57. Sorie Kondeh (TF1-074): Crime Base Witness, testified about recruitment of child soldiers, abductions and forced labour in Kono
  58. Yei Sundu Macualey (TF1-076): Crime Base Witness, testified about events in Kono
  59. Sieh Mansaray (TF1-215): Insider Witness, testified about events in Koinadugu District
  60. Ruko Turay (TF1-218): Crime Base Witness, was raped by rebels in Kono
  61. Sahr Charles (TF1-304): Insider Witness, testified about mining activities in Kono
  62. Sia Kamara (TF1-195): Crime Base Witness, testified about abductions and amputations in Tongo Fields, Kenema District
  63. Alhaji Tejan Cole (TF1-206): Civilian Witness, testified about Liberian mercenaries fighting in Sierra Leone
  64. Sahr Bindi (TF1-197): Crime Base Witness, testified about events in Kono
  65. Ibrahim Wai (TF1-097): Crime Base Witness whose hand was amputated by rebels
  66. Edna Bangura (TF1-314): Insider Witness, testified about RUF/AFRC activities in Bombali and Kailahun Districts, and arms shipments from Liberia
  67. TF1-158: Insider witness, and former child soldier
  68. TF1-023: Crime Base Witness, testified about rebel activities in the Western Area
  69. TF1-029: Crime Base Witness, was abducted by rebels in 1999
  70. Sarah Koroma (TF1-331): Crime Base Witness, testified about rebel activities in the Western Area
  71. Mohamed Samson Blah (TF1-084): Crime Base Witness whose hand was amputated by rebels
  72. Alpha Jalloh (098): Insider Witness, former soldier in the Sierra Leone Army
  73. Samuel Radder (TF1-104): Crime Base Witness, testified about amputations done by rebels
  74. Akiatu Tholley (TF1-085): Crime Base Witness, was victim of rape by rebels
  75. Paul Nabieu Conteh (TF1-227): Crime Base Witness, testified about atrocities committed by rebels in Freetown
  76. Ibrahim Fofanah (TF1-216): Insider witness, testified about rebel activities in Kono
  77. Gibril Sesay (TF1-217): Insider Witness, testified about rebel activities in Kono
  78. Kumba Bindi (TF1-198): Crime Base Witness and victim of rape by rebels
  79. Abu Bakarr Mansaray (TF1-024): Crime Base Witness, testified about rebel activities in Freetown
  80. Mustapha Mansaray (TF1-210): Insider Witness, testified about rebel activities in the Western Area and Kono District
  81. Sheku Bah Kuyateh (TF1-201): Crime Base Witness, testified about rebel activities in Kono
  82. TF1-579: Insider Witness who was a member of the NPFL in Liberia
  83. Augustine Sama Mallah (TF1-045): Insider Witness was captured and recruited into the RUF.
  84. TF1-358: Expert Medical Witness testified using protective measures and discussed the nature of gunshot wounds for which he provided medical treatment for many victims in Freetown.
  85. Dauda A. Fornie, (a.k.a. DAF) (TF1-274): Insider Witness, served as RUF signal commander/radio operator
  86. Hassan Bility (TF1-355): Factual Witness, Liberian journalist who testified against the RUF in Sierra Leone, Chuckie Taylor in the United States and Charles Taylor in The Hague
  87. Tariq Malik: Head of evidence unit at the Special Court who testified about how documents are received and processed as evidence by the prosecution
  88. TF1-168: Insider Witness who testified entirely in closed session
  89. TF1-062: Crime Base witness, testified using protective measures
  90. TF1-174: Crime Base Witness, testified about crimes committed in Makeni specifically with regard to child soldiers
  91. Finda Gbamanja (TF1-303): Crime Base Witness, who was captured and raped by rebels
  92. Alusine Conteh (TF1-278): Crime Base Witness, whose two hands were amputated by rebels in Freetown
  93. Naomi Campbell: Linkage witness, who testified about receiving a gift of diamonds from unknown individuals, assumed to be sent by Taylor, after a charity dinner both attended in South Africa.
  94. Mia Farrow: Linkage witness, who testified that Naomi Campbell received diamonds allegedly from Taylor the night of the charity dinner in South Africa.
  95. Carole White: Linkage witness, who testified that Naomi Campbell received diamonds allegedly from Taylor the night of the charity dinner in South Africa.

Heads of State of Sierra Leone from the Start of the War

  • Joseph Saidu Momoh: Nov. 28, 1985-April 29, 1992; President
  • Yahya Kanu: April 30, 1992-May 1, 1992; Chair, National Provisional Defense Council (NPRC)
  • Valentine Strasser: May 1, 1992-Jan. 17, 1996; Chair, Supreme Council of State of NPRC
  • Julius Maada Bio: Jan. 17, 1996-March 29, 1996; Chair, Supreme Council of State of NPRC
  • Ahmad Tejan Kabbah: March 26, 1996-May 25, 1997; President
  • Johnny Paul Koroma: May 26, 1997-Feb. 12, 1998; Chair, Armed Forces Revolutionary Council
  • Ahmad Tejan Kabbah: March 10, 1998-Sept. 17, 2007; President
  • Ernest Bai Koroma: Sept. 17, 2007-Present; President

Heads of State of Liberia Since the Start of the War

  • Samuel K. Doe: April 12, 1980-Sept. 9, 1990; President, assassinated in a coup d’etat
  • Dr. Amos Sawyer: Nov. 11, 1990-March 7, 1994; President, Interim Government of National Unity
  • David D. Kpormakpor: March 7, 1994-Sept. 1, 1995; Chair, Council of State
  • Wilton G.S. Sankawulo: Sept. 1, 1995-Sept. 9 1996; Chair, Council of State
  • Ruth Perry: Sept. 3, 1996-Aug. 3, 1997; Chair, Council of State
  • Charles Taylor: Aug. 2, 1997-Aug. 11, 2003; President, (Enoch Dogolea/Moses Blah, Vice-Presidents)
  • Moses Blah: Aug. 11, 2003-Oct. 10, 2003; President
  • Gyude Bryant: Oct. 10, 2003-Jan. 16, 2006; Chair, National Transitional Government of Liberia
  • Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf: Jan. 16, 2006-Present; President (Joseph Nyumah Boakai, Vice-President)