International Justice Monitor

A project of the Open Society Justice Initiative

Who’s Who

The Accused

Germain Katanga: Alleged commander of the Force de résistance patriotique en Ituri (FPRI).

Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui: Alleged former leader of the Front des nationalistes et intégrationnistes (FNI).

Judges of Trial Chamber II

  • Bruno Cotte (Presiding)
  • Fatoumata Dembele Diarra
  • Christine Van den Wyngaert

The Prosecution

The Defense for Germain Katanga

  • David Hooper
  • Andreas O’Shea

The Defense for Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui

  • Jean-Pierre Kilenda Kakengi Basila
  • Jean-Pierre Fofé Djofia Malewa

Legal Representatives of the Victims

  • Fidel Nsita Luvengika
  • Jean-Louis Gilissen

Registry

  • Herman von Hebel, Registrar

Key Groups and Organizations Referred to in the Trial

Ethnic Groups

  • The Hema: an ethnic group, mainly pastoralists. The Gegere is a sub-group of the Hema. The Rwandan-backed UPC claimed to represent interests of the Hema.
  • The Lendu: an ethnic group, mainly agriculturalists. The Ngiti is a sub-group of the Lendu. The FPRI militia was largely comprised of Ngiti members who were close to the Lendu-led FNI militia; both groups claimed to represent the interests of the Lendu, with Ugandan backing.

Ituri-Based Armed Groups

  • FAPC: the People’s Armed Forces of Congo, an armed group comprising a mix of ethnic groups.
  • FPDC: the Popular Force for Democracy in Congo, an armed group comprised of ethnic Alur and Lugbara.
  • FNI: The Nationalist and Integrationist Front/Front des nationalistes et intégrationnistes, an ethnic Lendu armed group closely linked to the FPRI that reportedly received support from Uganda in its operations against the Rwandan-backed, ethnic Hema UPC. Its alleged leader Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui is currently standing trial at the ICC.
  • FIPI: Front for Integration and Peace in Ituri, a platform of three ethnic-based groups, including the PUSIC, the FNI and the FDPC. These shared a common enemy – the UPC.
  • FPLC: the Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of the Congo, the armed wing of the UPC.
  • FPJC: the Popular Front for Justice in Congo, a splinter group of the FPRI.
  • FPRI: the Ituri Patriotic Resistance Force/Force de résistance patriotique en Ituri, an armed group closely linked to the FNI and comprised of ethnic Ngiti, a sub-group of the Lendu. It also received support from Uganda in its operations against the Rwandan-backed, ethnic Hema UPC. Its alleged commander Germain Katanga is currently standing trial at the ICC.
  • MLC: the Movement for the Liberation of Congo, a Ugandan-backed armed group whose leader Jean-Pierre Bemba is on trial at the ICC for crimes his group allegedly committed in the Central African Republic.
  • MRC: the Congolese Revolutionary Movement, an ethnic Lendu militia, led by Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui for a period before his integration into the FARDC.
  • PUSIC: Party for Unity and Safeguarding the Integrity of Congo, a Hema breakaway group from the UPC.
  • RCD: Congolese Rally for Democracy-Goma, an armed group formed with the backing of the Rwandan and Ugandan governments in order to depose Laurent Désiré-Kabila. The RCD gave way to various breakaway groups, including the RCD-Kisangani, the RCD-Movement for Liberation and the RCD-National.
  • UPC: Union of Congolese Patriots/Union des Patriotes Congolais, a predominantly Hema/Gegere armed group led by Thomas Lubanga (currently on trial at the ICC).

Government Actors

  • FARDC: the national Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • Joseph Kabila: Current president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the son of Laurent Kabila.
  • Laurent Kabila: Former President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, assassinated in 2001. Father of Joseph Kabila.
  • UPDF: Ugandan People’s Defense Force, which aggravated the conflict in eastern DRC by backing a variety of armed groups in accordance with its strategic interests.

UN Actors

  • MONUC: the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, present in the region since 2000.

Geographical Terms Referred to in the Trial

  • Kinshasa: The capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), located on its western border.
  • Ituri: A district in the Orientale Province in north-eastern DRC that was made an independent Province in 1999. It is bordered by Uganda to the east and Sudan to the north. Ituri is composed of five territories sub-divided into collectivités, which are in turn divided into groupements and villages.
  • Irumu territory: Part of Djugu territory in Ituri, DRC. It is composed of 12 collectivités, including one ethnic Ngiti collectvité (Walendu Bindi),and four ethnic Hema collectivités (Bahema Sud, Bahema Boga, Bahema Mitego and Bahema d’Irumu).
  • Bahema Sud collectivité: One of the 12 sub-divisions of Irumu territory, Ituri. It is inhabited by ethnic Hema.
  • Groupement of Babiase: An area in Bahema Sud, Irumu territory, Ituri, consisting of four localities – Dodoy, Bagaya, Nyakeru, and Talieba, with the village of Bogoro as its administrative center.
  • Bogoro: A village and administrative centre of the groupement of Babiase, in Bahema Sud collectivité, Irumu territory in Ituri. It is the site of the war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed by the FPRI and FNI militias from January to March 2003, for which the alleged commanders of these groups (Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, respectively) are now on trial at the ICC.