International Justice Monitor

A project of the Open Society Justice Initiative

Who’s Who

Accused

  • Laurent Koudou Gbagbo: Founder of the Ivoirian Popular Front; President of Côte d’Ivoire from 2000 to 2010.
  • Charles Blé Goudé: Ivorian political leader; founder of the Pan-African Congress of Young Patriots (COJEP); supporter of the ideas and policies of Laurent Gbagbo.

Trial Chamber I Judges

  • Cuno Tarfusser, Presiding Judge
  • Geoffrey Henderson
  • Olga Herrera-Carbuccia

The Prosecution

  • Fatou Bensouda, Prosecutor
  • James Stewart, Deputy Prosecutor
  • Eric MacDonald

The Defense for Laurant Gbagbo

  • Emmanuel Altit
  • Andreas O’Shea
  • Agathe Bahi Baroan
  • Natasha Fauveau Ivanovic

The Defense for Charles Blé Goudé

  • Geert-Jan Alexander Knoops
  • Jean-Serges Gbougnon
  • Claver N’dry

Registry

Legal Representatives of the Victims

  • Paolina Massidda, Principal Counsel

Key Groups and Organizations Referred to in the Trial

Ethnic Groups

  • Baoulé: One of the larger ethnic groups in Côte d’Ivoire, generally farmers from the eastern part of the country.
  • Dioula/Djoula: A predominantly Muslim ethnic group from northern Côte d’Ivoire. The Dioula, traditionally traders, are the Côte d’Ivoire’s second largest cultural group. The Dioula were reportedly affiliated with the MPCI and RDR. Dioula is also the name of the language they speak, which is one of the principle Côte d’Ivoire languages and is widely understood in several other West African countries. Ouattara is a Dioula-specific name.
  • Guéré: An ethnic group of landowners in northern Côte d’Ivoire.
  • Malinké/Mandinka: One of the largest West African ethnic groups (belonging to the Mandé group), the Malinké are predominantly Muslim. Sometimes considered as “Dioula,” members of this ethnic group are not ethnic Dioula but may speak a form of the Dioula language. Ouattara is Malinké.
  • Mossi: An ethnic group from Burkina Faso that emigrated to Côte d’Ivoire to work as farm laborers.
  • Senufo/Senoufo: Sometimes considered as “Dioula,” members of this northern Côte d’Ivoire ethnic group are not ethnic Dioula but may speak a form of the Dioula language. They are predominantly agricultural.

Other regional and national groups involved in the conflict

  • Burkina Faso fighters
  • ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States): Acted to end the crisis and foster peace agreements.
  • ECOFORCE (ECOWAS Peace Force for Côte d’Ivoire): Deployed as a peacekeeping force in December 2002.
  • Liberian fighters
  • Malian fighters
  • Sierra Leonean fighters: Especially former members of the rebel group the Revolutionary Armed Forces (RUF).
  • UNOCI (United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire): A peacekeeping mission deployed in Côte d’Ivoire since 2004.

Armed Groups

  • Armed Forces of the New Force (FAFN)
  • New Forces (FN): Also the Forces Nouvelles. An alliance group formed by three rebel groups that later supported Ouattara during the post-election period.
  • Patriotic Movement of Côte d’Ivoire (MPCI): Member of the New Forces. Headed by former student leader Guillame Soro and largely comprised of former Côte d’Ivoire soldiers, northern ethnicities (“Dioula,” including Malinké, Senaphou, and other ethnicities), recruits from Burkina Faso and Mali, and “dozos,” traditional Ivorian hunters.
  • Movement for Justice and Peace (MJP): Member of the New Forces. Largely comprised of Liberian and Sierra Leonean fighters, including members of the Sierra Leonean rebel group the Revolutionary United Front (RUF).
  • Ivorian Popular Movement for the Far West (MPIGO): Member of the New Forces. Also largely comprised of Liberian and RUF fighters.
  • Republican Forces of Côte d’Ivoire (FRCI): The current Ivorian army.
  • The Invisible Commando: A pro-Ouattara armed group.
  • Central Command Security Operation Force (CCOS): A pro-Gbagbo group. A security force created by presidential decree in July 2005 to secure Abidjan.
  • Armed Forces of Côte d’Ivoire (FANCI): A pro-Gbagbo group. The Government’s official military.
  • Ivorian Defense and Security Forces (FDS): A pro-Gbagbo group. The former Ivorian army.
  • Ivorian Patriotic Youth Front (JFPI): A pro-Gbagbo group.
  • Patriotic Movement of Côte d’Ivoire (MPCI): A pro-Gbagbo group.
  • Pan-African Congress of Young Patriots (COJEP): Headed by Charles Ble Goude; a pro-government militia group that operated in the south and west of Côte d’Ivoire during the conflict. Other similar groups included:
    • Student Federation of Côte d’Ivoire (FESCI);
    • Liberation Forces of the Far West (FLGO): Founded by Denis Glofiei Maho;
    • Patriotic Group for Peace (GPP): Headed by Moussa “Zeguen” Toure;
    • The Lima Suppletive: Worked with the FLGO and FANCI; and
    • Union for the Total Liberation of Côte d’Ivoire (UPLTCI): Headed by Eugene Djue.

Political Parties

  • Ivorian Popular Front (FPI): Party of Gbagbo.
  • The Presidential Majority (LMP): Coalition that supported Gbagbo.
  • Democratic Party of Côte d’Ivoire (PDCI): Henri Konan Bédié’s party.
  • Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace (RHDP): Coalition supporting Ouattara, led by RDR and PDCI.
  • Rally of Republicans (RDR): Alassane Ouattara’s party that split from the PDCI in 1994.
  • Rally for Peace, Progress and Sharing (RPP): Laurent Dona Fologo’s party.
  • Democratic Union of Côte d’Ivoire (UDCI): Mel Eg Théodore’s party.

Government Actors

  • Henri Konan Bédié: Leader of PDCI. President of Côte d’Ivoire from 1993-1999 and introduced the concept of Ivoirité.
  • Felix Houphouët-Boigny: First president of Côte d’Ivoire from 1960 until his death in 1993.
  • General Robert Guei: Became leader of Côte d’Ivoire in 1999 after overthrowing Bédié in a military coup. He fled the country in 2000 after trying to rig the presidential election.
  • Alassane Dramane Ouattara: A Muslim born in the north of the country. Before his ran for president, he worked for the International Monetary Fund and the Central Bank of West African States. He has been serving as president of Côte d’Ivoire since 2011.

Geographical Terms Referred to in the Trial

  • Abidjan: Capital city of Côte d’Ivoire.
  • Abobo: Abidjan neighborhood considered an Ouattara stronghold where victims were allegedly targeted and the subject of charges against Gbagbo and Blé Goudé.
  • Adjamé: Abidjan neighborhood considered an Ouattara stronghold where victims were allegedly targeted.
  • Bouaké: Côte d’Ivoire’s second largest city, located in the north; headquarters of the MPCI, and one of the locations of the 2002 coup d’état.
  • Burkina Faso: Neighboring country that saw large emigration to Côte d’Ivoire.
  • Duékoué: Community in western Côte d’Ivoire, considered an Ouattara stronghold.
  • Fresco: Community in western Côte d’Ivoire, considered an Ouattara stronghold.
  • Golf Hotel: Abidjan hotel under the protection of the UNOCI and considered the headquarters of the FN political wing in Abidjan.
  • Grand Lahou: Community in western Côte d’Ivoire, considered an Ouattara stronghold.
  • Irobo: Community in western Côte d’Ivoire, considered an Ouattara stronghold .
  • Korhogo: Northern city in Côte d’Ivoire, where the MPCI staged an attempted coup d’état in 2002.
  • Kouibly: Community in western Côte d’Ivoire, considered an Ouattara stronghold.
  • Koumassi: Abidjan neighborhood considered an Ouattara stronghold where victims were allegedly targeted.
  • North Côte d’Ivoire: Part of the Côte d’Ivoire that is primarily Muslim, which the Forces Nouvelles controlled after the 2002 uprising.
  • Sassandra region: Community in western Côte d’Ivoire, considered an Ouattara stronghold
  • South Côte d’Ivoire: Part of the Côte d’Ivoire that is primarily Christian; where the capital Abidjan is located.
  • Treichville: Abidjan neighborhood considered an Ouattara stronghold where victims were allegedly targeted.
  • Yopougon: Abidjan neighborhood considered an Ouattara stronghold where victims were allegedly targeted and the subject of charges against Gbagbo and Blé Goudé.