International Justice Monitor

A project of the Open Society Justice Initiative

Who’s Who

The Accused

Thomas Lubanga Dyilo: A Congolese rebel militia leader and founding member and President of the Union des Partiotes Congolais (UPC).

Judges of Trial Chamber I

  • Adrian Fulford (Presiding)
  • Elizabeth Odio Benito
  • René Blattmann

The Prosecution

  • Fatou Bensouda, Prosecutor

The Defense

  • Catherine Mabille
  • Jean-Marie Biju-Duval
  • Marc Desalliers

Legal Representatives of the Victims

  • Paolina Massidda
  • Carine Bapita Buyangandu
  • Paul Kabongo Tshibangu
  • Joseph Keta Orwinyo
  • Franck Mulenda
  • Luc Walleyn

Registry

  • Herman von Hebel, Registrar

Key Groups and Organizations Referred to During the Trial

Ethnic Groups

  • The Hema: An ethnic group, mainly pastoralists. The Gegere is a sub-group of the Hema. The Rwandan-backed UPC claimed to represent interests of the Hema.
  • The Lendu: An ethnic group, mainly agriculturalists. The Ngiti is a sub-group of the Lendu. The FPRI militia was largely comprised of Ngiti members who were close to the Lendu-led FNI militia; both groups claimed to represent the interests of the Lendu, with Ugandan backing.

Ituri-based Armed Groups

  • APC: Armeé Populaire Congolaise, the armed wing of the Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie-Kisangani/Mouvement de Liberation.
  • FAPC: The People’s Armed Forces of Congo, an armed group comprising a mix of ethnic groups.
  • FPDC: The Popular Force for Democracy in Congo, an armed group comprised of ethnic Alur and Lugbara.
  • FNI: The Nationalist and Integrationist Front/Front des nationalistes et intégrationnistes, an ethnic Lendu armed group closely linked to the FPRI that reportedly received support from Uganda in its operations against the Rwandan-backed, ethnic Hema UPC. Its alleged leader Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui was acquitted of ICC charges in December 2012.
  • FPLC: The Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of the Congo, the armed wing of the UPC.
  • FPRI: The Ituri Patriotic Resistance Force/Force de résistance patriotique en Ituri, an armed group closely linked to the FNI and comprised of ethnic Ngiti, a sub-group of the Lendu. It also received support from Uganda in its operations against the Rwandan-backed, ethnic Hema UPC. Its alleged commander Germain Katanga is currently standing trial at the ICC.
  • PUSIC: Party for Unity and Safeguarding the Integrity of Congo, a Hema breakaway group from the UPC.
  • RCD: Congolese Rally for Democracy-Goma, an armed group formed with the backing of the Rwandan and Ugandan governments in order to depose Laurent Désiré-Kabila. The RCD gave way to various breakaway groups, including the RCD-Kisangani, the RCD-Movement for Liberation and the RCD-National.
  • UPC: Union of Congolese Patriots/Union des Patriotes Congolais, a predominantly Hema/Gegere armed group led by Lubanga.

Government Actors

  • FARDC: The national Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
  • Joseph Kabila: Current president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the son of Laurent Kabila.
  • Laurent Kabila: Former President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, assassinated in 2001. Father of Joseph Kabila.
  • UPDF: Ugandan People’s Defense Force, which aggravated the conflict in eastern DRC by backing a variety of armed groups in accordance with its strategic interests.

UN Actors

  • MONUC: The United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, present in the region since 2000.

Geographical Terms Referred to in the Trial

  • Kinshasa: The capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, located on its western border.
  • Ituri: A district in the Orientale Province in north-eastern DRC that was made an independent province in 1999. It is bordered by Uganda to the east and Sudan to the north. Ituri is composed of five territories sub-divided into collectivités, which are in turn divided into groupements and villages.
  • Bunia: A city in Ituri that served as headquarter of the FPLC.
  • Mandro, Rwampara and Bule: Locations of the UPC training camps.
  • Bunia, Tchomia, Kasenyi, Bogoro: Locations where children were deployed to take part in in fighting.